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In 1831, Mr. Papineau finding it hopeless to expect a reform of abuses in detail, attacked what Lord [[Wikipedia:Edward Smith-Stanley, 14th Earl of Derby|Stanley]] declared to be "the root of all the evil," and demanded the introduction of the [[elective principle]] into the constitution of Lower Canada. That year the house resolved that the members of the legislative council ought to be elected by the people, in the same manner as are the [[Wikipedia:New York Senate|senators]] of [[Wikipedia:New York State|this state]]. This demand was resisted by the British government, in consequence of which, the assembly drew up in 1834, the famous [[Wikipedia:The Ninety-Two Resolutions of the Legislative Assembly of Lower Canada|92 resolutions]], (of which it is understood, Mr. Papineau was for the most part the author,) and stopt the supplies.
[[Image:Richard-howe-1st-earl-howe.jpg|thumb|left|Richard Howe, 1st Earl Howe, headed along with his brother William, a commission to try to arrange peace with the Continental Congress]][[Image:Archibald-acheson-2nd-earl-of-gosford.jpg|thumb|Archibald Acheson, 2nd Earl of Gosford, Governor of the Canadas]]The demand for elective institutions, arrived now to such a height, that the ministry though it necessary to endeavor to cajole the Canadians into an abandonment of their position, and of their money. A [["royal" commission]], of which Lord [[Wikipedia:Archibald Acheson, 2nd Earl of Gosford|Gosford]] was the imbecile head, was sent to Canada in 1835. This commission was not long in the country, when it was discovered that like the old '[[Wikipedia:Richard Howe, 1st Earl Howe|Howe commission]]' of 1776, it was meant merely to deceive. Mr. Papineau denounced it accordingly, in the most indignant terms. It was in the course of the debate on the state of the province in 1836, that while advocating the introduction of the elective principle, he declared that "not only were [[Wikipedia:republic|republican]] institutions to prevail through the whole of this continent, but America was designed to furnish, at some future day, republics to Europe."
The royal commission having reported unfavorably on the various demands of the Canadian assembly, the British Parliament passed, in 1837, a [[Wikipedia:The Ten Resolutions of the British House of Commons|series of resolutions]], by one of which, they determined to vote away the money collected in the Province, the right to dispose of which, belonged to the representatives of the Province ''alone'', by law, common sense, and the constitution.
All this strict observance of the "very forms of the constitution," could not protect Mr. Papineau and the other gentlemen who acted with him, in defence of popular rights. They "must be put down," said Lord Gosford, and down they were put accordingly, despite all law. So true is it, that "the very forms of the constitution," however, respected they may be by the people, are but little regarded by those possessed of irresponsible power, when they are determined on violence, persecution and wrong.
However violent and illegal has been the conduct of the government in Canada; however systematically unjust has been its policy towards the Canadians, and however clouded and dark may be the prospect at present, we do not despair of the final triumph of those sacred principles, for which these people are contending. Democracy, like [[Wikipedia:Christianity|christianity]], only prospers the more, the more its followers are persecuted; and were we not encouraged by the history of [[Wikipedia:Nation|nations]], both on the European and American continent, there is enough in this brief sketch of Mr. Papineau's life, to foster hope and forbid despair. His father found that province a military colony - the people political [[Wikipedia:serf|serfs]] - military officers, judges; the law officers of the Crown in the province, unacquainted, even with the laws and the language of the people, over whom they were placed in authority, and the colonists deprived of [[Wikipedia:|trial by jury]], and the benefits of ''[[Wikipedia:habeas corpus|habeas corpus]]''. Thirty years afterwards, he obtained for his countrymen a representative assembly, and a voice in the making of their own laws. To extend by peaceable means the democratic principle thus recognized to the other institutions of the country, has been the constant and untiring aim of the ''second'' Papineau. For thirty years he, following the example of his venerable and patriotic father, has been educating his country, and endeavoring to accomplish his favorite and [[Wikipedia:Philanthropy|philanthropic]] object, and in the year 1831, we find him, with his country at his back, demanding that the people have the right to elect the second branch of their legislature. The contests between the people of Canada and the British government has terminated for the present, by the latter destroying (like [[Wikipedia:Charles X of France|Charles the Tenth of France]]) all popular rights, and by driving the advocated of democracy into prison or exile. The good seed with which has been sown has, however, taken root - the discussions, both oral and written, of the last seven years, have educated the people, and though the British government were now to sent out ten dictators, and ten times 10,000 bayonets, peace will never return to the province, nor will the Canadians ever be satisfied, until they obtain elective institutions, similar to those which have placed this great republic in the foremost rank of nations.
In person, Mr. Papineau is tall; his countenance is handsome, but stern, and his whole appearance is commanding and dignified. His manners are extremely simple and unostentatious, and his conversation animated, and not unfrequently playful. He is accused of being a ungovernable passions, but nothing can be more untrue. Mr. Papineau's indignation at wrongs suffered by his country, is a manly and honorable feeling - such as cannot but be experienced by every Canadian susceptible of a generous emotion in favor of his injured and insulted country, and which Englishmen too have known, when contemplating the vicious government which prevails in Canada. In privat.... , Papineau is a man of mild and amiabl... .... .., he is courteous in the ..., and there are now even, in the British parliament, many who are numbered among his country's oppressors, who could refute the calumnies respecting him.
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