A History of Canadian Wealth/Chapter X
The railways of Canada, owned, controlled and ruled privately by individual groups or corporations of capitalists, cover more than 26,000 miles of lines; and expressed in the substance of modern money terms, their capital is about $1,600.000,000. But the real amount upon which interest and dividends must be paid is $2,918,055,699.
The privately-owned railway systems, but this is not to say that their proprietorship has come from the application of private cash. The funds that paid for their construction have come largely, if not fundamentaly in whole, from the ever-accesible public treasury which the railway promoters early began to plunder, extending and elaborating the process with time and opportunity.
Vast Gifts of Land, Cash and Guarantees
The public finances have been placed at the disposal of railway promoters in three principal forms. Cash subsidies, comprising either outright cash or loans has been one method ; land grants, another ; and guarantees of bonds, a third. The first two were the main ways in the early decades of railroad history ; the last-named is an outgrowth of the financial methods of more recent years. All three come under the official designation of “ Government aid," the tabulated aggregate of which, to this present writing (1913), has reached :
Land grants ...................... 56,052,055 acres
Cash subventions ................... $244,000,000
Guarantees of bonds .............. $245,000,000
According to an estimate made by Mr. R.D. Fairburn in a paper read at a recent convention of the Canadian Manufacturers’ Association at Halifax, these 56,052,055 acres, if appraised at $20 per acre, produce a total amount of $1,121,041,100. In arriving at this estimate Mr. Fairburn pointed out that the Canadian Northern Railway reported an average price for its lands of $45.17 per acre. “ Thus,” he said, including the cash subsidies granted up to 1912, “ we have given to the railways $1,320,113,173 or about $50,000 per mile.”
But this estimate hardly expresses the total value of the land grants, which comprised, in some cases, great areas of timber lands ; in other cases, the most enormously valuable coal and other mineral deposits. Of the total of the profits drawn from these, and their entire present and potential commercial value, no accurate computation can be given.
These land grants, however, by no means include the city or town terminal land and water facilities donated during the last sixty years by municipalities to railway promoters for stations, freight depots, entrances and exits and other purposes. The aggregate value of these may be reasonably said to be stupendous.
A fraction more than 31,000,000 acres of the 56,052,055 acres in land grants were donated by the Dominion Government ; the Government of the Province of Quebec gave 13,625,949 acres ; that of British Columbia, 8,119,221 acres ; the New Brunswick Government, 1,647,772 acres ; that of Nova Scotia, 160,000 acres, and that of Ontario, 638,039 acres.1 Of the Dominion land grants one railroad-alone — the Canadian Pacific — received a present of 25,000,000 acres.2
Of the $244,000,000 contributed in cash subventions, or their equivalent in so-called loans, the Dominion Government has given about $190,000,000.3 The Provincial governments have given nearly $36,000,000, and municipalities $18,000,000 in cash subsidies. This aid has been largely outright cash donations ; only a small part has been in the nominal form of loans or subscriptions to shares, which have practically turned into gifts.
As for the guaranteeing of bonds of privately-owned railways by the Dominion Government or the Provincial governments, the guarantees have been :
In the single year of 1912, bond guarantees were increased by the sum of $96,733,688, bringing the amount from $148,336,357 in 1911 to the above stated total in 1912.
Besides the foregoing sums, the Dominion Government has spent more than $116,000,000 in constructing the eastern division of the National Transcontinental Railway, of which the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway Company will have the free use for the first seven years of a lease of 50 years.
All of the sums above given are exclusive of the great sums spent on the construction or acquisition of what are Government-owned railways. Of these expenditures the Intercolonial Railway system cost nearly $95,000,000.4
The Original Promoters
With this preliminary, we shall now proceed to narrate certain facts pertaining to the inception of Canada’s railways.
The prime and first consideration of railway ownership was the ability to get legislation giving certain definite rights and privileges. This legislation conferred what was called a charter of incorporation. Having the power, as the legislative politicians did, to grant to themselves these charters, it was not an astonishing outcome that the promoters should have so often been the politicians themselves. This was particularly so inasmuch as many of the politicians, then so-called, were not politicians in the sense that they exclusively followed politics. Not a few of them were landowners of considerable holdings, and it was not a far step for them to promote railways, the operation of which would increase the value of their timber and other lands. Other members of Parliament were traders, merchants or shippers, as well as land speculators, and had a personal and immediate interest in bringing about modern methods of transportation. Still other members of Parliament were lawyers, who were either connected with landed or trading families, or who were often themselves interested in capitalist undertakings or aspired to become so. At the same time, the parliamentary railroad promoters were compelled by the exigencies of politics to put on an appearance of great concern for the public welfare while engaged in the very act of seeking to enrich themselves ; they assiduously presented themselves as law makers having at heart the development of the resources of Canada and the expansion of its wealth.
To comprehend the large and important part the parliamentary legislators took as personal beneficiaries in the original promotion of railways, it is only necessary to survey the lists of incorporators of the first railroads.
Politicians Were Business Men
The promoters of the London and Gore Railroad Company, chartered in 1834, were headed by Allan N. MacNab, and comprised a large contingent of the most prominent legislative and other politicians. This railroad subsequently developed into the Great Western Railway of which MacNab became president. To this generation, MacNab’s name is obscure, but in his day he was a conspicuous personage — member of the Canadian Parliament for many years, Speaker of that body for a long time, created a knight, Prime Minister in 1854, raised to a baronetcy in 1856 — altogether a commanding dignitary whose daughters married into the British titled aristocracy.
The original object of a number of the first railroad companies was neither the settlement of the country nor the transportation of passengers, but was chiefly one of reaching the lumber and other resources of what were then the backwoods regions. In this category of railways was the Cobourg and Peterboro Railway, constructed chiefly to transport lumber, flour and other products, and with specific powers in its charter to build an extension to the Marmora Iron Works.
According to Lord Sydenham, Governor-General of Canada, the proceedings of the Canadian Parliament were far from being characterized by that considerate and polite reciprocity and discretion that might have been expected. “ You can form no idea,” wrote Sydenham in a private letter to Lord John Russell of the British Government, in 1840, “ of the manner in which a Colonial Parliament transacts its business. I got them into comparative order and decency by having measures brought forward by the Government, and well and steadily worked through. But when they came to their own affairs, and, above all, to the money matters, there was a scene of confusion and riot of which no one in England can have any idea. Every man proposes a vote for his own job ; and bills are introduced without notice, and carried through all their stages in a quarter of an hour! . . ." 5
Beneficiaries Were Highest Dignitaries
The members of the Canadian Parliament benefiting by charter and other grants were not merely ordinary members. The chief beneficiaries often were the foremost members — men who were leaders, or who evolved into leaders of political parties, or who became Cabinet Ministers or Prime Ministers.
We have already mentioned Sir Allan N. MacNab ; he, for a considerable time, was Chairman of the Legislative Assembly Standing Committee on Railroads of which Sir Francis Hincks, J. Cauchon and other conspicuous railway promoters were also members. Another prominent parliamentary railroad promoter was Malcolm Cameron, who, going to Parliament in 1836, remained there for more than a quarter of a century, varying the parliamentary routine by serving as a Cabinet Minister in various posts, as president of the Executive Council and as a member of the Legislative Council. His colleague, James Morris, another railroad promoter in his own interest, was likewise a seasoned parliamentarian, having gone to the Upper Canada Assembly in 1837, thence to the Canadian Parliament in 1841. From 1844 to 1858 Morris was prominent in some governmental capacity — in the Legislative Council (an appointive body constituting the upper branch of Parliament), as Cabinet Minister in the Executive Council, as Speaker of the Executive Council, and as Postmaster General.
There was John Ross,— member of the Legislative Council in 1848-1849, Solicitor-General of Canada in 1851, then Attorney-General, and subsequently Speaker of the Legislative Council. Sir John A. Macdonald was among the list ; from 1844 when first he went to Parliament he stood out with growing conspicuousness, becoming a Cabinet Minister in 1847, long keeping his seat in Parliament.
Grant Each Other Charters
More in evidence among the charter getters was George E. Cartier, of Montreal ; he entered Parliament in 1848, and remained for decades, meanwhile having his season of commanding authority as Cabinet Minister in 1856, and Premier in 1858. Another noted promoter was John Young ; he was elected to Parliament from Montreal in 1851 and 1854.
Nor should we omit the eminent John Sandfield Macdonald, serving in Parliament for many years from 1841 onward, and filling various high government offices from 1851 to 1858, after which he again displayed his acumen in Parliament. There, too, were Francis Hincks, Hugh Allan, William Hamilton Merritt, J.J.C. Abbott, James Ferrier, William Allan, Luther H. Holton, and many other notabilities ; and last, but by no means least, A.T. Galt who held a seat in Parliament for many years, dating from his first election in 1849.
With rapidity, charters of every description were forthcoming in plethoric succession. Nearly all of them were granted by these men to one another, and to strings of associates. These were the men, who, aiming at creating capitalists or becoming capitalists themselves or expanding their wealth, invested themselves and associates with the proprietary possession of charters for railroad, insurance, canal, banking, gas and water and other companies, all of which charters contained valuable privileges and immunities and exclusive rights.
For purposes of elucidation we shall catalogue a number of these charters.
They Give Themselves Charters
Among the incorporators of the St. Lawrence and Atlantic Railroad Company, chartered March 17, 1845, were A.T. Galt and Peter McGill,—the latter long President of the Bank of Montreal and a member of the Legislative Council of Canada.6
The list of incorporators of the Canada, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia Railway, chartered in 1847, with a capital of $2,000,000, reads as though it were largely a roster of Parliament itself. Heading the procession of incorporators was Sir Allan N. MacNab ; there were five members of the Legislative Council, including the active John Ross ; a long roll of members of the Provincial Parliament ; the Mayors of Montreal, Toronto and Kingston, and other office holders. Associated with them were a number of trading and sundry other men of capital — Sir George Simpson, Governor of the Hudson’s Bay Company and Paul Fraser of the same Company ; several bank cashiers ; some seigneurs and various other individuals of note either in politics or trade. The lawyers for the Company were either then conspicuous in politics or became more so later — attorneys such as Henry Sherwood of Toronto and John Rose of Montreal.7
In the list of incorporators of the Western Telegraph Company, chartered March 23, 1848, were Francis Hincks and Malcolm Cameron,8 both variously members of Parliament and of the Canadian Government. It was in this year that the Woodstock and Lake Erie Railway Company—later developing into the Great Southern Railway Company—was chartered ; of the malodorous operations and bribery committed by the promoters of this railway, some instructive details are related in the next chapter.
Sir Allan N. MacNab, Malcolm Cameron, John Young and other notables prominent in Parliament or trade or in both, were the incorporators of the Canada Life Assurance Company chartered April 25, 1849.9 Five days later, another charter was passed by the Canadian Parliament, naming MacNab, Young and others as proprietary incorporators of the Ontario Marine Fire Insurance Company.10 On the same day, May 30, 1849, the Quebec Warehousing Company was chartered, with Young as one of its chief promoters and incorporated beneficiaries.11
It was during this brisk session that the Parliament of the Province of Canada passed an Act with a preamble asserting the principle that in a new and thinly-settled country, where capital was scarce, the assistance of Government could safely be afforded to railway lines, “ and that such assistance is best given by extending to Companies constructing railways under charter the benefit of the guarantee of the Government for loans.”12
One delectable point was omitted in this preamble, namely, that the members of the very Parliament that enacted this law were largely themselves railroad promoters, or planning to become so.
A Long Succession of Charters
From now on charter after charter was rolled out in finished form. Hon. Robert Jones, John Young and associates were vested with a charter, May 30, 1849, for the Montreal and Vermont Junction Railway Company,13 and on the same day, a charter was presented to Young, Luther H. Holton and partners, empowering them to construct a ship canal from Lake Champlain to the River St. Lawrence.14
Louis Massue, Louis Methot, James Bell Forsyth, F.R. Angers and other personages, some of whom ranked as honorables, were incorporated August 10, 1850, as the proprietors of the Quebec and Richmond Railway Company.15 Forsyth and others obtained a charter for the Quebec and St. Andrews Railroad Company.16 John A. Macdonald and John Hamilton were among the incorporators of the Kingston Fire and Marine Insurance Company, chartered August 10, 1850.17
Equally active and powerful politicians were the incorporators of the Montreal and Kingston Railway, chartered in 1851. This group of promoters was small, but then or later of great parliamentary power : John Young, George Moffatt, A.N. Morin, L.H. Holton, A.T. Galt, George E. Cartier, and Ira Gould. The charter of this railway, it seems, was repealed at the instance of Sir Francis Hincks, but a railroad of much the same name, the Kingston and Montreal, came into being with a capital of £600,000 currency in shares, of which Galt, Holton and D.L. Macpherson gathered into their ownership almost the whole.18 This railway, it may be here remarked, later became part of the Grand Trunk Railway of Canada, controlled by much the same coterie of legislators owning the Kingston and Montreal Railway. Often these legislative and other capitalists sold or leased charters to themselves as heads of other railways, profiting exceedingly thereby.
Grand Trunk R.R. Incorporators
The charter of the Grand Trunk Railway of Canada, in fact, was regarded as one of the richest prizes. This was secured, November 10, 1852, by A.T. Galt, Peter McGill, George Pemberton, George E. Cartier, Luther H. Holton and other Parliamentary incorporators, with powers to build a railway from Toronto to Kingston and thence to Montreal.19
John Young and Sir Allan MacNab were prominent in the list of incorporators of the London and Port Sarnia Railway Company, chartered in the same year,21 and MacNab was also among the incorporated shareholders of the Hamilton and Port Dover Railway chartered at the same time.21 P.J.O. Chauveau (a prominent member of the Canadian Parliament since 1844, a Cabinet Minister several times, and later the first Premier of Quebec after Confederation), headed the promoters and incorporators of the Quebec and Saguenay Railway Company, which corporation was duly chartered in the next year.23
The directory of the Niagara District Bank, chartered May 19, 1855, comprised James Morris, John Ross, John Sandfield Macdonald, William Hamilton Merritt and others of note,24 and among the incorporators of the Zimmerman Bank, chartered on the same day, were Luther H. Holton and other public men.25
Get Bank Charters, Also
A prominent array of men in office headed the list of proprietary incorporators of Molson’s Bank, chartered May 19, 1855,— an institution which has since become one of the richest in Canada : there were William Molson, John Molson, Sr., George Moffatt, Samuel Gerrard, James Ferrier and other Montreal notables.26 Here it may be remarked that the politicians in the United States have long since so well appraised the value of bank charters, that as early as the years 1799, 1805, 1811 and 1824 bribery had been used to wrest from the legislators charters for the Manhattan, Mercantile, Merchants’ and other New York City banks.27 But in Canada, with many of the bank incorporators themselves leaders in legislative councils,28 bribery was, in general, superfluous.
More railway and other charters were consecutively enacted. John Young, Sir Allan N. MacNab and associates obtained a charter for the Hamilton and South Western Railway Company, on May 30, 1855.29 Four members of the Canadian Parliament were the chiefs among the incorporators of the Amherstburg and St. Thomas Railway Company, chartered in the same year.30 J.J.C. Abbott, George Moffatt, Hugh Allan and other political luminaries secured a charter, July 1, 1856, for the Canadian Marine Insurance Company.31 William Cayley, J.H. Cameron, John Beverly Robinson and two other members of the Canadian Parliament were among the incorporators of the Canada Western Railway Company, chartered May 16, 1856.32
The list of incorporators of the Strathroy and Port Frank Railway Company, chartered June 10, 1857, was headed by Malcolm Cameron.33 A number of members of the Canadian Parliament were among the promoters and incorporators of the Eastwood and Berlin Railway Company, and of the Brantford and Southwestern Railway Company, both chartered in 1857 ; and there were five members of the Canadian Parliament among the chartered incorporators of the Toronto and Owen Sound Railway Company, chartered in the same year.34
As for the Bank of Canada, chartered in 1858, its incorporated shareholders were headed by William Cayley, John Ross and other Parliamentary notabilities.35
More Railroad Charters
Of the North Shore Railway (which later became the Quebec, Montreal, Ottawa and Occidental Railway, some 90 miles long), Sir George Simpson of the Hudson’s Bay Company was an early president, and a number of members of the Parliament of Canada were directors.36 This railroad eventually received 2,700,000 acres of land as a gift from the Quebec Legislature, and $752,000 in cash bonuses and $1,948,600 in loans from the Provincial governments and from various municipalities. The chief pusher of this railway was J. Cauchon, a prominent Quebec politician who was Crown Commissioner of Lands and a member of the Canadian Government Ministry in 1857 ; in that capacity he assiduously promoted the North Shore Railway Company’s demand for a large land grant, and he later became the Company’s president.
A notable assemblage of legislators comprised the list of incorporators of the European and North American Railway. Although by the Act of Incorporation, only two of the nine directors were to be elected by the Legislature to represent the Province of New Brunswick, almost the whole personnel of the government of the Province of New Brunswick were among the incorporators — the Speaker of the House of Assembly, the Provincial Secretary, the Attorney-General, and other officials, not omitting 23 members of the New Brunswick Legislature. Three presidents of large New Brunswick banks were also on the list.37 Certain Maine capitalists were acting in unison. The European and North American Railway Company, by the N.B. Act of March 15, 1851, was allowed a capital of $1,500,000, and miscellaneous privileges such as exemption of its lands, stock, personal property, etc., from taxation.38 A month and a half later, the promoters gave themselves, by special law, a land grant to the extent of five miles on each side of the railway along the entire route 39 — a modest performance, indeed, seeing that they could as easily have made it ten miles.40 However, over in Maine they obtained another land grant of 700,000 acres.41
Charters to Obstruct Development
The contractors for that part of this railroad running from St. John, N.B., to Point du Chene, were the firm of Peto, Brassey, Betts and Jackson. They were obliged (for reasons hereafter explained) to suspend operations in 1854, because of bankruptcy ; and in 1856 the Government of New Brunswick bought the road from them for the sum of $438,000, and completed its construction. That portion of the European and North American Railway is now part of the Government-owned Intercolonial Railway. Other parts of the European and North American Railway were later merged — in 1872 — into the St. John and Maine Railway which received from the government and certain municipalities of New Brunswick $1,240,000 cash subsidies — which was nearly one-half of the entire cost of the road, namely $2,698,589.
These are but a few examples of members of Parliament voting charters largely to themselves ; we shall be under the unavoidable necessity later of specifying many other instances. Some of these charters were obtained without the slightest idea of constructing railroads ; it was the general recognized custom to get charters for the purpose of preventing other railroads from entering particular regions and towns, and of compelling such railroad companies as wanted to build there to buy out the charters at exorbitant prices.
In the case of such railroads as were constructed, the promoters frequently formed construction companies, and thus made large profits from railroads, the charters and subsidies for which they, themselves, as members of Parliament had voted.
Scramble for Charters
There was thus hardly a member of the Parliament of the Province of Canada or of the other legislative or the executive bodies who was not in some way zealously pushing railway or other projects in which he or his associates were personally interested.
The absence of indirection and the open-handed and deliberate fashion marked by not the slightest circumlocution were the most remarkable features of this general scramble to vest perpetual rights in themselves by their own votes. At a later period, parliamentary members often concealed their identity by substituting the names of relatives, friends or mere go-betweens, but at this particular period this more refined subterfuge was not thought of. Quite the contrary. High government officials and members of parliaments not only openly voted charters to themselves and associates, but in prospectuses, often issued for stock jobbing purposes, advertised their connection as a guarantee of the prominence and stability of these enterprises, and as the best assurance that could be given that the whole power of the state could be infallibly depended upon to pass whatever additional laws were necessary, and to give gratuities in loans, bonuses and land grants.
The Church Subscribes for Stock
Charters were, therefore, easily rolled through the legislative grind, but to get the funds for construction from private sources was often a very different and an arduous task.
The charter of the St. Lawrence and Atlantic Railroad Company, incorporated March 17, 1845, gave specific power to the ecclesiastics of the Seminary of St. Sulpice of Montreal, or any other civil or ecclesiastical body, to lend money to the Company or subscribe for its stock ; this was the first instance of authority of this kind given in Canada.
Timmins, secretary of the provisional committee of the Canada, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia Railway Company, wrote from Fredericton, N.B., January 7, 1850, to Earl Grey, at London, that he had been canvassing the parishes contiguous to the line of railway for the purpose of enrolling stockholders.
“The venerable Archbishop Signy,” he wrote further, “ having supplied me with letters to the Catholic clergy, his name has been like a tower of strength among them. . . . In proof of the zeal shown by the clergy in Lower Canada, I have the pleasure to tell you that the name of every rector, vicar and curé for the whole distance is entered in the Book of Enrollment [of stockholders] and the proposed applications for shares, and the enregistered amount in Canada and this province to the present time, including the £35,000 offered from the Hotel Dieu Nunnery and Seminary of Montreal, and for which the Bishop, Monseigneur Bourget, has entered his name, is £223,500, and the corporations of Quebec have granted £100,000, also, in debentures, to carry on the branch to Melbourne, making £335,000, which, considering the state the Country is in, is gratifying. . . .”42
It was not from private sources, however, that the railroads secured much of their capital, but from the Government of Canada and the Provinces and the municipalities. Controlling, as they did, the legislative and executive bodies and municipal bodies it was a remarkably easy process, they soon discovered, to have laws enacted indirectly allowing them to tax the whole body of the people. These contributions came in the form of forced loans, and gifts of money, land and other modes of bonusing, pouring constant supplies of cash and donations into the hands of the railway promoters.
2. Minus 6,793,014 acres for the relinquishment of which the Canadian Pacific Railway Company received $10,189,521 from the Dominion Government.
3. See 1912 and 1913 Railway Statistics of the Dominion of Canada; p. xvi, etc. To the sum stated in this report, we have added the subsidies voted during the 1913 session of Parliament, including the ten-year loan of $15,000,000 at 4 per cent, to the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway Company which loan may turn out to be a gift.
4. Annual Report of the Dep’t. of Railways and Canals, 1912, p. 53.
5. Adam Shortt’s biography Lord Sydenham, p. 251. Lord Sydenham was, no doubt, impressed by their primitively uncouth methods as compared with those in England, where the most flagrant jobs are put through with polished ease and leisurely equanimity, thus covering them with a nice gentlemanly elegance. Centuries of experience have taught this as a fine art.
6. Statutes of Canada, 1845, p. 146.
7. The full list of incorporators is given in Imperial Blue Books on Affairs Relating to Canada, Vol. 27, “ Railways,” pp. 7-8, and 18-19 of Enclosure “ Correspondence,” etc.
8. Statutes of Canada, 1848-1849, p. 9.
9. Ibid., 1849, p. 916.
10. Ibid., p. 899.
11. Ibid., p. 1079.
12. Statutes of Canada, 1848-1849, p. 214.
13. Ibid., 1849, p. 124.
14. Ibid., p. 981.
15. Ibid., 1849-1850, p. 1576.
16. Ibid., p. 1596.
17. Ibid., p. 1701.
18. Trout’s Railways of Canada, 1870, p. 146.
19. Statutes of Canada, 1852, pp. 103-104.
20. Ibid. 1853, pp. 522-523.
21. Ibid., p. 362. Almost immediately after this charter was granted, the London and Port Sarnia Railway was leased to the Great Western Railway of which MacNab was the head.
22. Ibid., p. 368.
23. Ibid., 1854, p. 118.
24. Ibid., 1855, p. 851
25. Ibid., p. 836.
26. Ibid., p. 821.
27. See Journals of the (New York) Senate and Assembly, 1805, pp. 351 and 399, and Ibid., 1812, p. 134. See also History of the Supreme Court of the United States, pp. 215-216. The chartering of the Chemical Bank in 1824, was accomplished by a considerable sum in bribe money and $50,000 in stock as bribes.—See, Journals of the (N.Y.) Senate, 1824, pp. 1317-1350.
28. See many other instances in Statutes of Canada.
29. Statutes of Canada, 1855, p. 761.
30. Ibid., p. 713. For details as to the particular history of this railway see next chapter.
31. Ibid., 1856, p. 512.
32. Ibid., p. 69.
33. Ibid., 1857, p. 622.
34. Ibid., p. 638.
35. Ibid., 1858, p. 690.
36. Canada Directory, 1857-1858, p. 628.
37. The complete list of incorporators appears in Imperial Blue Books on Affairs Relating to Canada, Vol. 27, “ Railways,” etc., p. 12, of Enclosure, “ Further Correspondence Relative to,” etc.
38. Ibid., p. 17.
39. Ibid., p, 27.
40. “In the case of another railway company, the St. Andrews and Quebec (later called the New Brunswick and Canada Railway, 127 miles in length) the directors at first claimed ten miles of land on each side of the line, but later, in 1852, amiably consented to take the five-mile land grant on each side voted by the Assembly instead of the ten miles as proposed by the board of directors. Imperial Blue Books, etc., Vol. 27, “Railways,” pp. 90-93 of “Further Correspondence Relative to the Projected Railway from Halifax to Quebec.” This railway received subsidies of $575,000 from the government, and $47,500 from the municipalities, of New Brunswick.
41. See Seventh report of the Forest Commissioner of Maine, 1908, p. 90.
42. Imperial Blue Books on Affairs Relating to Canada, Vol. 27, “Railways” Enclosure, p. 17. Timmins was accused of having no authority to act for the Company, and Earl Grey refused to communicate with him until this assurance was given.
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